Switchblade laws vary greatly worldwide. Most other countries do not have the freedoms we have here when it comes to weapons like knives and guns. Know your rights when traveling abroad or you might end up in trouble. Most people know the home of the Italian switchblade is Italy. Ironically you can not carry a switchblade or even have one in your car if you are in Italy!
Beginning with the Austrian Arms Act of 1996 switchblades, like all other knives, are generally legal to buy, import, possess or carry, regardless of blade length or opening or locking mechanism. The only exception are minors (defined as persons under the age of 18) and people who have been expressly banned from owning and carrying any weapon (Waffenverbot): both groups may only possess knives which are not considered “weapons” under the Arms Act, defined as “objects that by their very nature are intended to reduce or eliminate the defensive ability of a person through direct impact”. Switchblades usually fall under that definition.
In Austria the regulatory laws of individual states and the Assembly Act may prohibit knives from being carried into a public building, school, public assembly, or public event.
In Australia, switchblades are banned by the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations as a Prohibited Import. Australian customs refer to the automatic knife or switchblade as a flick knife. Australian law defines a flick knife as a knife that has a blade which opens automatically by gravity, by centrifugal force, or by any pressure applied to a button, spring or device in or attached to the handle of the knife, a definition that would cover not only switchblades and automatic-opening knives, but also gravity knives and balisongs.
At a state and local level, most jurisdictions declare flick knives to be prohibited weapons in their respective acts, codes and regulations. Persons residing in states that do not have specific weapons legislation covering switchblades (such as Tasmania) are still covered by Federal Customs legislation, but in conditions where the state has no legislation against such items, an exemption may be applied for and received if approved by the chief supervisory officer of the police service in that state.
Some states which have specific legislation against switchblades allow individuals to apply for an exemption from this legislation if they have a legitimate reason. For example, in the state of Victoria, a member of a bona fide knife-collectors’ association, who is not a prohibited person (per the Firearms Act 1996), and meets other guidelines and conditions may apply to the Chief Commissioner of Police for a Prohibited Weapons Exemption to possess, carry, or otherwise own such a knife. This exemption may then, in turn, be used to apply to the Australian Customs Service for an import permit.
Article 3, §1 of the 2006 Weapons Act lists the switchblade or automatic knife (couteaux à cran d’arrêt et à lame jaillissante) as a prohibited weapon. In Belgium, the police and local jurisdictions are also allowed to prohibit the carrying or possession of a wide variety of knives, which are not explicitly banned by law, if the owner cannot establish a legitimate reason (motif légitime) for having that knife, particularly in urban areas or at public events.
Switchblades are mostly illegal to sell, buy, trade, carry and possess. Part III of the Criminal Code defines such knives as prohibited weapons (armes défendues). While certain businesses can be granted a licence to acquire and possess prohibited weapons such as switchblades for use as props in movie productions, these exemptions do not apply to individuals.
The Criminal Code definition of “prohibited weapons” includes switchblades:
“A knife that has a blade that opens automatically by gravity or centrifugal force or by hand pressure applied to a button, spring or other device in or attached to the handle of the knife.”
Different subsections of the code describe possession offences and penalties. Belt-buckle daggers, push-daggers, finger-ring blades and innocuously concealed blades are also Prohibited Weapons in Canada under SOR/98-462 Part 3.
It is legal to carry and possess switchblade or automatic knives in the Czech Republic.
Any type of automatic-opening knife or bladed tool that can be opened using just one hand (this includes any one-handed knife that has been deactivated by removing its opening mechanism) is illegal to own or possess. Multi-tools featuring one-hand opening blades are also illegal to own or possess. Manually opened one-handed knives are legal.
In Finland switchblade or automatic knives are legal to purchase or possess. All knives are considered as dangerous weapons and it is forbidden to carry any knife without a proper cause. The law forbids carrying or importing any automatic knife that has the blade completely hidden like OTF switchblades. The restriction does not apply to importing historically significant knives or those with significant artistic value. The law requires that switchblades be cased and secured while being transported.
French law defines switchblades as dangerous weapons, which may not be carried on one’s person. If carried in a vehicle, such knives must be placed in a secure, locked compartment not accessible to the vehicle occupants. In addition, French law provides that authorities may classify any knife as a prohibited item depending upon circumstances and the discretion of the police or judicial authorities.
All large side-opening switchblade knives (blade longer than 8.5 cm), OTF switchblades, balisongs or butterfly knives (blade longer than 4 cm), and gravity knives are illegal to own, import or export under German law. Side-opening switchblade knives with single-edged blades not longer than 8.5 cm and incorporating a continuous spine are legal to own. Legal switchblades may be carried both open and concealed on one’s person if there is a justified need for it (“berechtigtes Bedürfnis”) or if the weapon cannot be accessed with less than 3 moves (“Transport in verschlossenem Behältnis”). Other laws or regulations may still prohibit the carrying of otherwise legal automatic or switchblade knives, particularly in certain situations or places (gatherings on public ground, check-in areas of airports).
According to decree 175/2003. (X. 28.) of the Hungarian government a közbiztonságra különösen veszélyes eszközökről (about the instruments particularly hazardous to public safety), it is prohibited to possess a switchblade in public places or private places open to the public – that includes the inside of vehicles present there – and on public transport vehicles, except for filmmaking and theatrical performances. Members of the Hungarian Army, law enforcement, national security agencies and armed forces stationed in Hungary are exempt from this limitation together with those who are authorised to carry such instruments by legislation. Sale of a switchblade is authorised only to the persons and organizations above. Customs clearance of switchblades may not be performed for private individuals such as tourists.
According to the Weapons Ordinance (Cap. 217), any person who has possession of any prohibited items (including Gravity Knife and Flick Knife) commits an offence.
Section 9 of the Firearms and Offensive Weapons Act 1990 makes it an offence to carry a “flick knife” in any public space without lawful authority or reasonable excuse. A summary conviction is punishable with either a €1000 fine, up to 12 months imprisonment or both but if indictable the penalty can be up to five years in prison. The Act, which classifies a flick knife as an offensive weapon, also prohibits the manufacture, importation, sale, hire or loan of these knives. Conviction for any of these offences carries a sentence of up to seven years imprisonment.
In Italy, the switchblade or automatic opening knife (coltello a scatto) is generally defined as an arma bianca (offensive weapon) rather than a tool. While legal for adults to purchase, such knives may not be transported outside of one’s property nor carried on the person, either concealed or unconcealed, nor may it be carried in a motor vehicle where the knife may be accessed by driver or passengers. The Italian Ministry of Interior has warned that switchblade knives will be considered offensive weapons in their own right.
In Japan any switchblade over 5.6 centimetres (2.2 in) in blade length requires permission from the prefectural public safety commission in order to possess.
According to Lithuanian law it is illegal to carry or possess a switchblade if it meets one of the following criteria: the blade is longer than 8.5 cm; the width in the middle of the blade is less than 14% of its total length; the blade is double sided.
As of 2011, it is prohibited to own or possess, whether kept at home or not, any stilettos, switchblades, folding knives with more than one cutting edge, and throwing knives.: 44–46
The Customs Import Prohibition Order 2008 prohibits the importation of “any knife having a blade that opens automatically by hand pressure applied to a button, spring or other device in or attached to the handle of the knife (sometimes known as a ‘flick-knife’ or ‘flick gun’)”. The Summary Offences Act 1981 and the Crimes Act 1961 section 202A(4)(a) make it an offence to possess any weapon in a public place without reasonable excuse.
Knives, including switchblades, although regarded as dangerous tools, are not considered weapons under Polish law, except for blades hidden in umbrellas, canes, etc. It is legal to sell, buy, trade and possess a switchblade, and Polish law does not prohibit carrying a knife in a public place. However, certain prohibitions may apply during mass events.
In Russia, switchblades are illegal only if their blade’s length is more than 9 centimetres (about 3.5 inches) – this is an illegal weapon, and there is a fine 500-2000 Russian rubles (about $8-30) and withdrawing of the knife only for carrying it (article 20.8 of Offences Code of Russia), but not for illegal purchasing and possession (keeping at home or somewhere else). Only self-making and selling white arms (rus. холодное оружие) is a crime in Russia (these two crimes are punished by: part 4 article 222 and part 4 article 223 of Russian Criminal Code). If the blade is shorter than 9 centimetres, anyone (even if he/she is younger than 18 years old, has a criminal history or mental illness) can buy, own and concealed carry (open carry of any weapon or things that look like weapon at human settlements is forbidden in Russia; with the exception for policemen) such a switchblade without any license. But even in this case, it is recommended that people carry on their person an official certificate (type approval) (which is usually in a box with a purchased knife), which proves that it is not a melee weapon and not restricted to carry, in which case even knives longer than 9 cm are sometimes approved.
The importation and possession of switchblades are illegal in Singapore. It may not be also listed or sold in auctions in Singapore.
Switchblades are specifically prohibited under Slovenian law.
It is legal to carry and possess switchblade or automatic knives with no restriction to the length of the blade.
In South Africa, little to no laws exist on the possession, sale, manufacture, and carrying of weapons, other than firearms. Switchblades are legal for possession, sale, manufacture, and carrying.
In South Korea, any knife that automatically opens wider than 45 degrees with the push of a button and has a blade that is longer than 5.5 centimeters is subject to registration. In order to register the knife and legally possess it, one must be older than 20, have no previous criminal offences and be healthy both physically and psychologically. The registration process is carried out at nearby police stations. However, unless the owner of the knife has a hunting license, carrying the knife in public is generally prohibited.
Manufacture, importation, trade, use and possession of switchblade knives are prohibited in Spain.
In Sweden, the possession of any knife in a public place, at school, or public roads is prohibited. Exceptions are made for those who carry knives for professional or otherwise justified reasons. Switchblades may not be possessed by individuals under 21 years of age.
Knives whose blade can be opened with an automatic mechanism that can be operated with one hand are illegal to acquire (except with a special permit) in Switzerland under the Federal Weapons Act. Butterfly knives, throwing knives and daggers with a symmetrical blade are banned likewise. Violations are punishable with imprisonment of up to three years or a fiscal penalty, as provided for by article 33 of the same act.
Switchblades are illegal to buy, sell and carry in Turkey per the corresponding law 6136 (4) which includes an incarceration sentence of up to 1 year. However, due to the widespread use of switchblades and butterfly knives in the country, imprisoning is very rare and sentences are often converted to a fine when it is the only violation.
On 12 May 1958, Parliament passed the Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959, which banned the manufacture, sale or offer to sell or hire any type of automatic-opening or switchblade knife. The law came in response to their perceived use by juvenile delinquents and gangs and associated media coverage, as well as by the 1958 passage of the Switchblade Knife Act in the United States. Indeed, much of the language in the Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959 appears to be taken directly from the American law.
The Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959, which took effect 13 June 1959, specifies that anyone who “manufactures, sells or hires or offers for sale or hire, or exposes or has in his possession for the purpose of sale or hire or lends or gives to any other person” an automatic-opening knife (flick knife) or gravity knife in England, Wales and Scotland is guilty of an offence. Importation of such knives into the United Kingdom after 13 June 1959 is prohibited as well as the sale, hire or gift of such knives to another. Under a strict interpretation of the Act, it is legal to possess an automatic-opening or gravity knife made before 13 June 1959 if it is held by the original owner within the home or other private place and is not transferred to any other person.
The Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959 states:
- Any person who manufactures, sells or hires or offers for sale or hire, or exposes or has in his possession for the purpose of sale or hire or lends or gives to any other person—
- any knife which has a blade which opens automatically by hand pressure applied to a button, spring or other device in or attached to the handle of the knife, sometimes known as a “flick knife” or “flick gun”; or
- any knife which has a blade which is released from the handle or sheath thereof by the force of gravity or the application of centrifugal force and which, when released, is locked in place by means of a button, spring, lever, or other device, sometimes known as a “gravity knife”,
- The importation of any such knife as is described in the foregoing subsection is hereby prohibited.
This legislation does not apply to an assisted-opening knife although the two are often confused. An assisted-opening knife does not operate by “hand pressure applied to a button, spring or other device in or attached to the handle of the knife” as per the above offence wording. These knives open by way of applying pressure to a notch attached to the blade itself.
Additionally, subsequent legislation such as the Criminal Justice Act 1988 prohibits the carrying of any knife with a locking blade or any knife with a cutting edge (not blade length) longer than 3 inches (76mm) in a public place, a law which would apply to many switchblades as well. In Scotland, the law on carrying prohibited types of knives in a public place is codified by the Criminal Justice Act 1988 (Offensive Weapons) (Scotland) Order 2005, made under the 1988 Act.
Articles Cited Above in regards to switchblades and automatic knife laws
- Benson, Ragnar (1989). Switchblade: The Ace of Blades. Paladin Press. pp. 1–14. ISBN 0-87364-500-6. The switchblade is also known in Germany as the Springmesser.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Shackleford, Steve (ed.) (2009). Blade’s Guide To Knives And Their Values. Krause Publications. pp. 151–152 ISBN 978-1-4402-0387-9.
- ^ Schrade, George M. George Schrade and his accomplishments to the Knife Industry. George Schrade Knife Co. (1982). ASIN B00072P8NU.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Nappen, Evan(2003), “Are Switchblades Sporting Knives”, Sporting Knives 2003: 60-65, ISBN 0-87349-430-X
- ^ Levine, Bernard, Switchblade Legacy, Knife World, August 1990, p. 27-29
- ^ Waffengesetz (1996): The 1996 version of the Waffengesetz appears to drop the switchblade from the category of prohibited weapons entirely, regardless of blade type: “Gegenüber der bisherigen Rechtslage sind nunmehr Waffen, mit denen ohne Verwendung von Patronen reizauslösende Mittel versprüht werden können, sowie Spring- und Fallmesser nicht mehr der Kategorie der verbotenen Waffen zuzurechnen … Im Hinblick auf andere ebenso gefährliche Stichwaffen (z.B. Butterflymesser) und die Tatsache, dass Spring- und Fallmesser in den übrigen EU-Mitgliedstaaten keineswegs verboten sind und daher von Touristen und anderen Reisenden, in Unkenntnis des österreichischen Waffengesetzes, mitgebracht werden, ließ es zweckmäßig erscheinen, auch diese Waffen aus der Liste der verbotenen zu streichen.”
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Waffengesetz (1996)
- ^ Jell, Sonja (Magistra) Weapons Law: Knives in Austria
- ^ “Australian Government Department of Immigration and Border Protection”. www.customs.gov.au.
- ^ Jump up to:a b La loi sur les armes a été modifiée: quelles sont les nouveautés? (PDF) (in French) (3rd ed.). Bruxelles. September 1, 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 1, 2011. Retrieved August 27, 2011.
- ^ Nouvelle Loi sur les Armes, retrieved 27 August 2011
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k Lang, Oliver (March 2010). Messer in Europa: Mit Dem Messer Auf Reisen (Übersicht – Messer & Recht im Ausland, Messer Magasin) (in German). Archived from the original on November 20, 2014.
- ^ Branch, Legislative Services (27 August 2021). “Consolidated federal laws of canada, Criminal Code”. laws-lois.justice.gc.ca.
- ^ “SOR/98-462 Part 3”.
- ^ §1 zákona 119/2002 Sb., zdroj: SBÍRKA ZÁKONŮ ročník 2002, částka 52, ze dne 09.04.2002 (§1, Law No 119/2002, Collection of Laws vol.2002, sum 52, published 2002-04-09), Retrieved January 8, 2009
- ^ Suomen Järjestyslaki Ch. 3, Sec. 9§ Vaaralliset Esineet, 27 June 2003
- ^ Tulli, rajoituskäsikirja http://tulli.fi/documents/2912305/3048504/vaaralliset_esineet.pdf/a2b7b21d-ac1f-4317-b6aa-2a17d5fa91c0
- ^ Weapons Ordinance (Cap. 217) § 4, also refer to the Schedule
- ^ (eISB), electronic Irish Statute Book. “electronic Irish Statute Book (eISB)”. www.irishstatutebook.ie.
- ^ 
- ^ Articolo 699 Codice Penale, ARMI – Porto Abusivo
- ^ Definizione Di Arma Impropria: Coltello a Scatto, Tribunale di Gorizia, Sezione penale, 20 May 2009
- ^ Si segnala che con circolare 559C.7572.10179(17) 1 il Ministero dell’Interno ha avvertito che i coltelli a scatto sono da considerare armi proprie, con tutte le conseguenze in ordine al loro regime giuridico.
- ^ “Double-edged knives may be regulated by law”. www.asiaone.com.
- ^ “Apie peilininkus, peilius ir viską, kas su tuo susiję… – knives.lt”. knives.lt.
- ^ “Prohibited offensive weapons imports”, legislation.govt.nz
- ^ “Summary Offences Act 1981”, legislation.govt.nz
- ^ “”Forskrift om skytevåpen, våpendeler og ammunisjon mv. (våpenforskriften) – Kapittel 2. Forbudte våpen og ammunisjon””.
- ^ Act of 21 May 1999 on weapons and ammunition (Dz.U. 1999 nr 53 poz. 549)
- ^ Act of 20 March 2009 on the safety of the mass events (Dz.U. 2009 nr 62 poz. 504)
- ^ “Статья 6 ограничения устанавливаемые на оборот гражданского и служебного оружия федеральный закон об оружии n 150-ФЗ (скачать) (2017). Актуально в 2017 году – ЗаконПрост!”. zakonprost.ru.
- ^ ru:Холодное оружие#Ограничения гражданского оборота холодного оружия
- ^ “”Уголовный кодекс Российской Федерации” от 13.06.1996 N 63-ФЗ (ред. от 29.07.2017) (с изм. и доп., вступ. в силу с 26.08.2017) / КонсультантПлюс”. www.consultant.ru.
- ^ “”Кодекс Российской Федерации об административных правонарушениях” от 30.12.2001 N 195-ФЗ (ред. от 29.07.2017) (с изм. и доп., вступ. в силу с 10.08.2017) / КонсультантПлюс”. www.consultant.ru.
- ^ “Prohibited Goods and Controlled Goods”. ICA.
- ^ “Armas prohibidas”. www.guardiacivil.es. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
Bastones-estoque, los puñales de cualquier clase y las navajas llamadas automáticas. Se considerarán puñales a estos efectos las armas blancas de hoja menor de 11 centímetros, de dos filos y puntiaguda
- ^ Svensk Lag (1988:254) Om förbud Beträffande Knivar och andra Farliga Föremål, Justitiedepartementet L4, 5 May 1988
- ^ Bundesgesetz über Waffen, Waffenzubehör und Munition (Waffengesetz, WG) / Loi fédérale sur les armes, les accessoires d’armes et les munitions (Loi sur les armes, LArm) of 20 June 1997 (as amended), SR/RS 514.54 (D·F·I), art. 4 (D·F·I) par. 1 litt. c in conjunction with art. 5 par. 1 litt. c.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Restriction of Offensive Weapons Bill Archived 2012-04-02 at the Wayback Machine, New Statesman, retrieved 29 October 2011
- ^ Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959: Short title, commencement, and extent, retrieved 29 October 2011
- ^ Fisher v. Bell, 1 QB 394 (1961); Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act (amended) (1961): While the Act – as amended in 1961 – uses the phrase “exposes or has in his possession for the purpose of sale or hire”, it appears fairly evident from prior legislation and appeals cases that “exposes” in this context refers to “exposure for purposes of sale or hire”, not simply the act of showing the knife to another person.
- ^ “Restriction of Offensive Weapons Act 1959”. www.statutelaw.gov.uk.
- ^ “Switchblade vs. Assisted Opening Knives”.
- ^ Criminal Justice Act 1988
- ^ “The Criminal Justice Act 1988 (Offensive Weapons) (Scotland) Order 2005”. www.legislation.gov.uk.
- ^ In Gibbons v. Ogden, the U.S. Supreme Court first established the principle that Congress may regulate under the Commerce Clause of the Constitution only those activities within a state that arise out of or are connected with a commercial transaction, which viewed in the aggregate, substantially affect interstate commerce.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d Walker, Greg (1993). Battle Blades: A Professional’s Guide to Combat/Fighting Knives (Hardcover), pages 210 ISBN 0-87364-732-7
- ^ Title 15, Ch. 29, § 1241 United States Code (Definitions): The term “interstate commerce” means commerce between any State, Territory, possession of the United States, or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof.
- ^ Alabama State Legislature. “Carrying concealed weapons”. Code of Alabama 1975. Section 13A-11-50.
- ^ Alabama State Legislature. “Indictment for carrying weapons unlawfully; proof”. Code of Alabama 1975. Section 13A-11-55.
- ^ : In 2010, Arizona law was changed to allow concealed carry of a knife such as a switchblade that might be defined by an Arizona court as a deadly weapon as long as the person is over 21 years of age; discloses the fact to a law enforcement officer upon questioning; is not carrying the deadly weapon in furtherance of a serious offense or felony, is not a prohibited possessor, is not carrying the deadly weapon in a listed prohibited area (schools, airports, power plants, polling places, etc.) or in furtherance of a terrorist act; is not carrying the deadly weapon into a public establishment or public event that bans carrying of a deadly weapon; and is not knowingly carrying a defaced deadly weapon.
- ^ : Illegal to possess on one’s person or in a vehicle or otherwise readily available a switchblade (or any knife) with a blade length exceeding three inches capable of causing serious bodily injury by cutting or stabbing with a purpose to attempt to unlawfully employ the knife against a person. AR Code § 5-73-120 (2014)
- ^ “2014 Arkansas Code :: Title 5 – Criminal Offenses :: Subtitle 6 – Offenses Against Public Health, Safety, or Welfare :: Chapter 73 – Weapons :: Subchapter 1 – Possession and Use Generally :: § 5-73-120 – Carrying a weapon”.
- ^ : Note: some city criminal codes, such as Oakland, are more restrictive and prohibit possession or carry of all switchblades regardless of blade length. See OMC 9-36.040
- ^ : Note: some city criminal codes, such as Oakland, are more restrictive and prohibit all switchblades regardless of blade length. See OMC 9-36.040
- ^ Simmons, Tommy, Here’s What You Should Know About Colorado’s New Switchblade Law, The Greeley Tribune, 2 November 2017: The cities of Denver, Aurora, Boulder, Colorado Springs and Lakewood all have switchblade ordinances.
- ^ : PA C.S.A. 18 §908: “It is a defense under this section for the defendant to prove by a preponderance of evidence that he possessed or dealt with the weapon solely as a curio or in a dramatic performance, or that…he possessed it briefly in consequence of having found it or taken it from an aggressor, or under circumstances similarly negativing any intent or likelihood that the weapon would be used unlawfully. “
- ^ : Sioux Falls § 133.001 (1957). There is an exemption for an “ordinary pocket knife” which does not include a switchblade: “An “ordinary pocket knife” means a small knife designed for carrying in a pocket or purse, that has its cutting edge and point entirely enclosed by its handle, and that may not be opened automatically by a throwing, explosive, or spring action.”
- ^ Raposa, Megan, City: Don’t Pocket Switchblades, Brass Knuckles, Argus Leader 13 Nov 2015
- ^ Texas Penal Code Title 10 Sect 46.02 (Places Weapons Prohibited): airports, amusement parks, churches, synagogues, or other places of religious worship, correctional facilities, courts, hospitals, nursing homes, racetracks, schools and colleges, on the physical premises of a school or educational institution, any grounds or building on which an activity sponsored by a school or educational institution is being conducted, any passenger transportation vehicle of a school or educational institution, polling places, on the premises where a high school, college, or professional sporting event is taking place, venues serving alcohol, and any area within 1000 feet of a designated execution site on execution day.
- ^ Texas Penal Code Title 10 Sect. 46.01 et seq
- ^ : §18.2-311. If any person sells or barters, or exhibits for sale or for barter, or gives or furnishes, or causes to be sold, bartered, given or furnished, or has in his possession, or under his control, with the intent of selling, bartering, giving or furnishing, any…switchblade knife, ballistic knife as defined in § 18.2-307.1, or like weapons, such person is guilty of a Class 4 misdemeanor. The having in one’s possession of any such weapon shall be prima facie evidence, except in the case of a conservator of the peace, of his intent to sell, barter, give or furnish the same.
- ^ Jump up to:a b Amended on February 6th, 2016
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Erickson, Mark (2004). Antique American Switchblades. Krause Publications, 0873497534, 9780873497534
- ^ Langston, Richard (2001). Collector’s Guide to Switchblade Knives: An Illustrated Historical and Price Reference. Boulder, Colorado: Paladin Press. p. 224. ISBN 1-58160-283-9.
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Schrade, George M. (1982). George Schrade and his accomplishments to the Knife Industry. George Schrade Knife Co., ASIN B00072P8NU
- ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Zinser, Fuller(2003) “Switchblades of Italy”, Turner Publishing. ISBN 1-56311-933-1
- ^ Shackleford, p. 152: The name Diamond Edge would live on after Shapleigh Hardware went into bankruptcy in 1960. Its trademarks were purchased by Imperial Cutlery Company, who used the Diamond Edge trademark on a variety of knives.
- ^ Hughes, Rupert. Letters Patent No. 1,315,503 issued September 9, 1919, Washington, D.C.: United States Patent Office
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Hughes, Rupert, Letters Patent No. 1,315,503 issued September 9, 1919, Washington, D.C.: United States Patent Office
- ^ Crowell, Benedict (1919), America’s Munitions 1917–1918, Report of Benedict Crowell, Assistant Secretary of War (Director of Munitions), U.S. War Department, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 88, 228
- ^ Military affairs: journal of the American Military Institute, American Military History Foundation, American Military Institute, Kansas State University, Dept. of History (1937) Vol. I, p. 153
- ^ Erickson, Mark, Antique American Switchblades, Chapter 22: KA-BAR, a trademark of Union Cutlery Co., Olean, NY, Krause Publications, ISBN 0-87349-753-8 (2004)
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Benson, pp. 49-50
- ^ Some M2 knives featured a hawkbill blade
- ^ Trzaska, Frank, Misunderstood Switchblade, Tactical Knives (July 2013)
- ^ Jump up to:a b c Pollack, Jack H., The Toy That Kills, 77 Women’s Home Companion Magazine 38, November 1950
- ^ Siler, Wes, Why Switchblades Are Banned, Gizmodo
- ^ Levine, Bernard, Switchblade Legacy, Knife World (August 1990), p. 24
- ^ Dick, Steven (1997), The Working Folding Knife, Stoeger Publishing Company, ISBN 978-0-88317-210-0
- ^ Levine, Bernard R., The Switchblade Menace, OKCA Newsletter (1993): Rep. Sidney R. Yates (D) of Illinois was convinced of a sadistic connection, proclaiming that “vicious fantasies of omnipotence, idolatry…barbaric and sadistic atrocities, and monstrous violations of accepted values spring from [switchblades] … Minus switchblade knives and the distorted feeling of power they beget—power that is swaggering, reckless, and itching to express itself in violence—our delinquent adolescents would be shorn of one of their most potent means of incitement to crime”.
- ^ Pollack, Jackson. “We Must Stop The Sale Of Switchblade Knives”. Parade Magazine. May 26, 1968: “It could happen to you or any member of your family, any time, anywhere…Tempers flare. Suddenly a hand streaks toward a pocket. There Is a swift click. A hidden, dagger-tipped blade darts out like a snake’s tongue. Clutched In a fist is a murderous “switchblade … “
- ^ Wolff, Lester L., Speech to the House of Representatives, U.S. Congressional Record (House), May 27, 1968
- ^ Moore, Joan W., Going Down to the Barrio: Homeboys and Homegirls in Change, Philadelphia PA: Temple University Press, ISBN 0-87722-855-8, ISBN 978-0-87722-855-4 (1991), pp. 40, 59-60
- ^ McCorkle, Richard C. and Miethe, Terance D. (2001). Panic: The Social Construction of the Street Gang Problem. New York: Prentice-Hall. pp. 54, 214. ISBN 0-13-094458-0, ISBN 978-0-13-094458-0
- ^ Schneider, Eric C. (2001). Vampires, Dragons, and Egyptian Kings: Youth Gangs in Postwar New York. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, p. 242. ISBN 0-691-07454-2
- ^ Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports for the United States, 1965; Crime in the United States (2012)
- ^ U.S. 19 CFR 12.95 (1990) Definitions: A ‘switchblade knife’ means any imported knife, or components thereof, or any class of imported knife…which has one or more of the following characteristics or identities: (3) Unassembled knife kits or knife handles without blades which, when fully assembled with added blades, springs, or other parts, are knives which open automatically by hand pressure applied to a button or device in the handle of the knife or by operation of inertia, gravity, or both.
- ^ Amendment 1447 to 15 U.S.C. §1244 adds a fifth exception to the definition of a switchblade knife: Sections 1242 and 1243 of this title shall not apply to: 5) a knife that contains a spring, detent, or other mechanism designed to create a bias toward closure of the blade and that requires exertion applied to the blade by hand, wrist, or arm to overcome the bias toward closure to assist in opening the knife.
- Aldighieri, Paolo, Coltello a scatto antico italiano – Italian Switchblade, self-publishing, ISBN 979-1220036887 (2018)
- Benson, Ragnar, Switchblade: The Ace of Blades, Paladin Press, ISBN 1-58160-283-9 (1989)
- Byrd, K.L., SwitchPix-.com
- Erickson, Mark, Antique American Switchblades, Krause Publications, ISBN 0-87349-753-8 (2004)
- Federico, Vincent, Foreign Spring Steel: Collectors Guide Vol. I, self-published (2003)
- Langston, Richard, Collector’s Guide to Switchblade Knives, Paladin Press ISBN 1-58160-283-9, ISBN 978-1-58160-283-8 (2001)
- Meyers, Ben and Meyers, Lowell, An Introduction to Switchblade Knives, American Eagle Publishing (1982)
- Shackleford, Steve, (ed.), Blade’s Guide To Knives And Their Values, Krause Publications, ISBN 978-1-4402-0387-9 (1989)